San Francisco Spine Surgeons

Category Archives: Spine Surgery

How Smoking Affects the Outcome of Spinal Fusion






Individuals who have suffered a structural abnormality or injury to a segment of the spine, such as a herniated disc, may experience chronic pain that becomes debilitating. In such an instance, spinal fusion may be the logical treatment choice. Fusion involves placing a bone graft of synthetic substitute between two vertebrae (or more, if necessary),… Read More »



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